Many men in the United States may have symptomatic testosterone deficiency. T deficiency can be diagnosed with a simple blood test. U.S. sales of T-replacement therapies were $1.4 Billion in 2018. T gels comprised about 84% of these sales.
We believe a large number of men with T deficiency remain untreated or do not adhere to their T-replacement therapy because of dissatisfaction with currently available T-replacement therapies.
Common symptoms of T deficiency include:
- Reduced sexual desire and activity
- Decreased spontaneous erections
- Breast discomfort or breast development in men
- Loss of body hair
- Height loss, low trauma fracture, low bone mineral density
- Hot flushes or sweats
- Decreased energy, motivation, initiative, and self-confidence
- Feeling sad or depressed mood
- Poor concentration and memory
- Sleep disturbance, increased sleepiness
- Mild anemia
- Reduced muscle bulk and strength
- Increased body fat, body mass index
- Diminished physical or work performance
The Endocrine Society defines hypogonadism in men as a clinical syndrome that results from failure of the testis to produce physiological levels of testosterone (androgen deficiency) and a normal number of spermatozoa due to disruption of one or more levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.
Classification of hypogonadism: Abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis at the testicular level cause primary testicular failure, whereas central defects of the hypothalamus or pituitary cause secondary testicular failure. Hypogonadism also can reflect dual defects that affect both the testis and the pituitary.
- Primary testicular failure results in low testosterone levels, impairment of spermatogenesis, and elevated gonadotropin levels.
- Secondary testicular failure results in low testosterone levels, impairment of spermatogenesis, and low or low-normal gonadotropin levels.
- Combined primary and secondary testicular failure results in low testosterone levels, impairment of spermatogenesis, and variable gonadotropin levels, depending on whether primary or secondary testicular failure predominates.
Testosterone therapy is recommended for symptomatic men with classical androgen deficiency syndromes and in men with a clear demonstration of low testosterone and symptoms associated with such a deficiency.